1 Preface

World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding WHO and UNICEF recommend: breastfeeding should start one hour after birth; exclusive breastfeeding should be performed in the first 6 months of life; and supplementation with sufficient nutrition and safety at the age of 6 months (Solid) food, while breastfeeding continues to be two years of age or older.

1 Mom has no milk or very little milk is very rare

Affected by traditional concepts, there are too many unreliable statements about breastfeeding. Frequent milk feeding is not enough weaning for the child, and the child has not been weaned for a long period of time. Weaning, etc., so that mothers don’t know who to trust? I began to question that I couldn’t raise a child. The more the mothers intervened, the more anxious the mother was, and the postpartum depression continued to rise, so that the mother was weaned helplessly. In fact, we would naturally have enough milk to feed the child. Observe the small animals and mother It’s really happy to eat milk and sleep together. The mother of a small animal will not be so worried and anxious about its milk. People are advanced animals. In this regard, they should learn like small animals. Under what circumstances Cause less milk?

①Thyroid problem (Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism reduces the amount of milk produced. ② Insufficient breast tissue.

③Sheehan’s syndrome (a disease of pituitary gland function that can cause insufficient pituitary gland lactation).

④Breast surgery.

⑤A disease in which the mother is disabled

⑥ Some drugs (contraceptives), in fact, real milk may not even be difficult to get pregnant.

2 milk secretion

Milk is produced by breast cells. Secretion is divided into 5 stages, and the lactation preparation period. At this time, the appearance of the breast changes, nipples protrude, the breasts become larger, the areola color becomes darker, and there are individual differences in breast changes. Some women have breast changes. Small, successful breastfeeding, so self-perception cannot be used to predict the amount of breast milk. Lactation 1 studies show that the ability to synthesize milk is already available at 16 weeks of pregnancy. Colostrum is already in the breast until 1-2 days after delivery. At this time, the mother’s lactation is not large. The significance of lactation protection is greater than nutritional requirements. This is because there is a gap between the mammary epithelial cells of the mammary vesicles in the colostrum phase, and the components in the mother’s blood, especially the immune macromolecules and cells can easily enter the milk. As soon as the baby is born, it sucks colostrum. A large amount of colostrum enters the newborn. Colostrum will adhere to the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract, thereby protecting the respiratory and digestive system from bacteria. This is important for newborns. Lactation 2 3-8 days,

The breast cell gap is closed, the colostrum is transformed into a transitional breast, and the breast can enter the lactation period. The mother can feel that the breast is full. However, some mothers did not have full breasts, fullness and tightness, and changes in the appearance of milk during the third postpartum period. It was considered that the second stage of lactation was delayed, mainly due to the endocrine reasons of the mother, or the babies were included and sucked in the first two days. Problems, insufficient breastfeeding frequency and time, separation of mother and child, etc. Some researchers think that the third stage of lactation starts from the ninth day, but some researchers think that it is 5 days. At this time, mature milk is completely taken off. From this period, the milk production is determined by the amount of milk removed, which is what the baby eats The more you secrete, the less you eat. The whole process of this period can be maintained until the last feeding. In the reintroduction period, after the mother is weaned or cannot breastfeed because of the disease, and she stops breastfeeding, she wants to resume breastfeeding. Humans have a longer lactation function than animals. They want to feed again within 42 days of breastfeeding. Breast pump can also help resume breastfeeding, and some can lactate even months after breastfeeding.

3 milk antibodies

The milk of each mammal is suitable for the growth and development of your baby. Human milk contains 7% of lactose, 3.8% of fat, and 0.9% of protein. Cow mothers account for 4.8% of milk lactose, 37% of fat, and 3.4% of protein. Goat milk contains 4.1% lactose, 4.5% fat and 2.9% protein. The content of fat and protein in human milk is lower than that of other animals, so breastfeeding babies tend to be thinner. The content of lactose in human milk is the highest in all mammals, mainly based on beta-lactose, which is an important substance for infant growth One is of nutritional value. Lactose disaccharide has a molecular structure of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. The function of glucose is to energize the body, and the function of galactose is to facilitate vision and brain health. Therefore, the brain development of human milk during infancy is very important. In addition to nutrition, what is more important is the immune components in her, which cannot be made by milk powder. Immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM. SIgA in immunocolostrum in colostrum can account for 90%. There are also immune-active cells in breast milk, including giant cell neutrophils and lymphocytes, and immune factors such as interleukins. These cells and factors have the function of phagocytosis and killing cells, which is of great significance in preventing newborn and infant infections. . A large amount of oligosaccharides in breast milk can resist bacterial carbohydrates. An important role is to promote the production of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid in the rectum, thereby inhibiting the growth of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The intestinal flora of breast-fed babies is dominated by bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria account for 90% of infants in the first 20 days. Bacteroides and E.coli are relatively small. Probiotics such as Bifidobacteria inhibit the increase of harmful bacteria such as E.coli. Anti-infective and anti-allergic effects. Therefore, even if the breast-fed baby is sick, feeding breast milk during the illness will be faster than the milk powder baby, especially the gastrointestinal recovery. It may take 1 month or longer for the baby’s milk to recover from the gastrointestinal tract. In one to two weeks, the strength of breast milk can be felt while the child is sick. Premature babies have different needs than full-term babies. They need more active substances and more growth and development. Therefore, colostrum takes longer than full-term babies. Macroelements are higher than the milk of full-term babies. Because the needs are different and the ingredients are not the same, the Clostridium in the intestine of premature infants has a high content of lactobacillus and the diversity of intestinal flora is higher than other feeding methods, which can better establish the intestinal flora Human milk is smart, and each mother’s milk is tailored to the needs of the child.

4 The smell in breast milk comes into contact with the skin to complete the first milking

Small animals also find their mothers by smell. How is the smell of human milk different from that of formula? The odor components of breast milk and formula milk are significantly different. Studies have shown that ketones, fatty acids and aldehydes are important compounds that cause the smell of breast milk. Odor analysis also shows that there are considerable differences in the odor of breast milk among individuals. Deodorants are volatile adducts of liquid compounds, reflecting the combined effects of maternal diet and endogenous metabolism. Infants’ social perception of breast milk odor may depend on individual patterns of breast milk odor. Although different deodorants have been found in different breast milks, some common deodorants have appeared. These compounds are not typical ingredients of breast milk. In addition to maltitol, they are most likely due to the oxidative degradation of fatty acids in breast milk. Considering that they are derived from the nutritionally important lipid portion of human milk, the general appeal of breast milk odors to newborns suggests that specific odors in breast milk may induce behavioral responses in infants. In other words, the smell of each mother’s milk is unique, and then skin contact is performed immediately after delivery, because the newborn is unfamiliar with the external environment, nervous, and stress is born. The best way to relieve stress is to find the most familiar environment The most familiar environment is skin contact. The wrapped newborn is placed on the mother’s bare chest and abdomen without any clothes. The skin and skin contact a lot. When it comes into contact with the mother’s skin, the mother’s odor, skin temperature, and heartbeat sound will stimulate The original instinct of the newborn is gradually coordinated, and breastfeeding is achieved on this basis [1]. Unlimited contact between mother and baby, the baby will eat the mother’s skin on the mother, will eat the beneficial bacteria on the mother’s stomach to get the mother’s microbiome, which will help the baby to resist external bacteria and viruses Living conditions. After the newborn is born, the baby is placed on the mother’s body naked for breast-searching. The baby’s breast-searching uses its olfactory nerve, so the breast does not need to be scrubbed. Breasts, complete the first breast crawling for feeding. How does milk crawling work? Observe the baby monkey ’s mother sitting on the baby ’s breast and hold her breasts from bottom to top while breastfeeding. Watching the baby animal ’s mother is so happy to feed, human beings are mammals, and human breastfeeding should be the same. At present, the most recommended breastfeeding position semi-recumbent (biological parenting) mother lies on the bed at a 45-degree angle. The baby naturally crawls on the mother with the effect of gravity. The baby contains milk by itself, and the areola that catches the lower part will get more Lots of milk, asymmetrically contained. And the nipples are less painful. And the baby is self-contained on the breast. Naturally contains more of the lower areola. Then open your mouth wide behind your head and suck your breasts. With this method, babies who have difficulty with milk will find that there is no difficulty with milk; mothers who have headaches in the early postpartum period will also find that their mother’s nipples will not hurt. This posture is more like a mother breastfeeding. This position frees the back and waist, making it easier for mothers to breastfeed.

5 Frequent breastfeeding

The baby will enter deep sleep for 4-6 h after finishing the first feeding. This is the transition period (the baby from the uterus to the uterus breathes spontaneously because there is a change, so there is a deep sleep). This will be very uncomfortable. When the baby wakes up after this deep sleep, he will look for milk and sleep again. Mom can sleep with children. The next day, 24 hours, I slept much more during the day, and kept feeding at night. The peak of prolactin secretion at 1-5 am, the peak of lactation just matched the pattern of baby milk. For the first three weeks, this pattern was normal. the second

It ’s crazy feeding at night. The baby cries a lot. The baby wants to feed more at night. At this time, the mother will suspect that the milk is insufficient. Frequent feeding is not enough for the child. This is the rhythm of the baby. This is a biological characteristic. This frequent breastfeeding is the child’s job, and mature milk must be taken off. The Breastfeeding Medical Association and the Joint Commission recommend breastfeeding 8 to 12 times a day, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breastfeeding for an unlimited period of time until the baby falls asleep and leaves the nipple. If there are 8 to 12 feedings in the first two days, the mother will feel milking 48 hours ago. After 48 hours, the mother will observe increased crying, frequent breastfeeding, and will show that the breastfeeding occurs at a close stage, and dense breastfeeding usually occurs at night. Many mothers think that they have no milk or milk, so they add bottles , Milk powder, soother. In fact, this is a normal physiological phenomenon. This is because the baby’s umbilical cord in the womb is continuously providing nutrition to the baby. Intensive breastfeeding occurs because the baby has to adapt to the new way of supplying her nutrition. Assessing that the baby’s weight gain and excretion are normal can not be pure Due to lack of lactation in the mother. And in 1,2,3 months

The former child sucked very vigorously, and there was a general reaction from mothers that the child basically hanged for 24 hours. Some mothers responded that this situation would last about 2 days, and then they started to eat like this after a while. At this time, the demand was greater than the supply. Set by nature

The plan is for the mother to increase her milk volume steadily and provide her with enough milk. This is normal biological behavior and requires no intervention. For mothers who do n’t understand the baby’s situation, if they don’t think the milk is enough, add milk powder. As a result, the less breast milk is added, the breasts are smarter, the more milk powder is added, and the child’s absorption of the breast is reduced, the brain will think that the child eats If you do n’t have so much milk, you won’t secrete too much milk. Drinking soup and drinking traditional Chinese medicine will not help the lactationist. If you find a reliable lactationist, it will also cause mastitis in your mother. The amount of milk is not you or lactation. The teacher has the final say, but the baby’s mouth has the final say. It can be observed that under normal circumstances, small animal mothers eat and sleep with their mothers without outside intervention, and rarely have crying babies [2].

6 Difficulties in breastfeeding by working mothers

It is not a normal biological behavior for nursing mothers to return to the workplace or the separation of mothers and infants. Faced with the separation of mothers and infants or returning to the workplace, mothers can learn to hand-pump or use a breast pump. Personally, I think breast pumps are more troublesome. Milking is more convenient. Correct hand milking does not damage the nipple. The method is to first stimulate the nipple with a stroke, and then the hand is C-shaped and placed at a position about 2cm from the root of the nipple, that is, the area where the breast ducts gather around the areola. This is also the pressing point, which can effectively squeeze out the milk. For mothers whose milk is not easy to squeeze out, we can set a time for ourselves to squeeze out milk at this time of day. After a milk spray reflex ends, it will stimulate the sensitive area around the areola, and there will be 2-3 times or The above milk spray is reflected, and then the milk is squeezed out and stored. Milking at a fixed time every day will stimulate a few more milking reflexes. Over time, the breast has a memory function. It will remember that at this point there will be a “baby” feeding milk and it will secrete a certain amount of milk. If it is a breast pump, first select a suitable breast pump horn cup according to the size of the nipple. The improper size will cause the nipple to swell and the milk will be sucked less. The suitable horn cup will allow the nipple to move freely in the mouth of the horn when sucking milk. All mothers who have passed the breast pump know that there is a prolactin mode before breast pumping, and then pumping milk. After sucking a breast ejection reflex, you can stimulate the next breast ejection reflex with the breast ejection pattern. After you feel it, you can suck in the breast pump mode, you can suck for a short time, and then return to the prolactin mode. This can stimulate a few more milk ejection reflexes, until the breasts become soft, it is difficult to suck the milk out and stop, and then spend another minute Milking can better increase lactation. For working mothers, babies from 7 to 11 months are characterized by a separation anxiety period. The baby thinks that the mother is anxious when she does not return from his sight. The working mother will find that the baby often wakes up at night to find her mother, and some babies will appear at night. Frequent breastfeeding seems to make up for the loss of love during the day, and some babies will give up milking, etc. There will be a peak period of anorexia in this special period, during which both physical and psychological discomfort, and food supplement Babies also like adult foods instead of baby foods, and prefer solid foods. For many working mothers, they think that their children may be weaned, and they will stop breastfeeding [3]. There are a variety of problems that mothers have when they go to work. You can find reasons from your heart and body. For working mothers, breasts are the best emotional bond. In this process, all kinds of external pressures such as going to work for breastfeeding and unconscious children are painful for working mothers every minute. You can weigh how to choose, regardless of whether the mother chooses to continue breastfeeding or choose a substitute milk product is the best mother.

7 Conclusion

Breastfeeding is a matter for mothers and babies. You should understand breastfeeding knowledge during pregnancy and build confidence in breastfeeding.